Home » Uncategorized » You are here
by 9th Dec 2020

Maize lethal necrosis disease Multiple virus infections Once the disease enters a field there is little that can be done to prevent total loss of the crop. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) is the latest emerging disease of maize in Sub-saharan Africa. Amplicon sequences were identical, and had 95 to 98% identity with MCMV sequences in GenBank. For instance, in Kansas, crop losses due to MLND have been estimated to be 50-90% (Niblett and Claflin, 1978; Uyemoto et al., 1980) depending on the variety of maize and the year. Abstract Maize lethal necrosis (MLN), a complex viral disease, emerged as a serious threat to maize production and the livelihoods of smallholders in eastern Africa since 2011, primarily due to the introduction of maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV). (en) Data Sheet on Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN) Disease, Leibniz Institut DSMZ GmbH. D. Jeffers, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), © 2012 The American Phytopathological Society, The American Phytopathological Society (APS), APS Education Center Online Teaching Portal, Internship, REU, REEU & Work Experience Opportunities, http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-06-12-0576-PDN. In Kenya, it caused crop losses of between 50% and 100%. High thrips (Frankliniella williamsi Hood) populations were present in sampled fields, but populations of other potential disease vectors, such as aphids and leafhoppers, were low. The disease has since been confirmed in Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, and similar symptoms have been reported in Tanzania, Uganda, South Sudan, and Ethiopia. Since then the disease has been reported in Rwanda and DR . (Photo: George Mahuku/CIMMYT) This announcement by Dr. L. M. Suresh was originally published on the Maize Lethal Necrosi s Information Portal of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) . Section III … MAIZE Management Committee and Independent Steering Committee Meeting Minutes; Documents – Gender in Maize ... International coalition keeps devastating maize disease at bay, but risks still linger. MLN is a disease caused by the synergistic combination of Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus (MCMV) and any from the potyvirus family, in this case Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV). Of 17 symptomatic leaf samples from each Bomet and Naivasha, nine from Bomet and all 17 from Naivasha were positive for MCMV. Virology. The Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO) has developed two maize varieties that will help contain the spread of the Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN) disease and fall army worm which have adversely affected maize production in the country. Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) is a devastating viral disease of maize caused by double infection with Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and any one of the Potyviridae family members. Z. M. Kinyua, At early stages, MLND causes many long yellow stripes on leaves. The symptoms were described as mottling of the leaves, small cobs with few grains, and necrosis of young leaves leading to “dead heart” and eventually plant death. The maize lethal necrosis (MLN), which appeared in the region in 2011, has caused major losses to the maize crops, decreasing food security and the ability of the smallholder farmers to provide for their families. Plants frequently died before tasseling. In September 2011, a disease outbreak in Kenya was positively identified as Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND). Management of MLND requires effective resistance screening and surveillance tools. This project researched solutions to minimize or eliminate the risks and effects of the disease in the region. In these regions, maize is grown continuously throughout the year, with the main planting season starting in November. Corn lethal necrosis develops when two viruses occur together in the same plant. Amplicon sequences had 96 to 98% identity, and were 88 to 96% identical with SCMV sequences in GenBank. declining acreage under maize cultivation and demands of fast growing population (Nuss and Tanumihardjo, 2010). CABI The Plantwise Blog Maize lethal necrosis disease on the decline in Kenya CIMMYT Maize Lethal Necrosis disease plant clinics Plant clinic data collected by Plantwise countries in East Africa has corroborated a statement from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) which said maize lethal necrosis disease (MLN) is “under control but not… Impact of maize lethal necrosis disease on maize yield: A case of Kisii, Kenya. Free library of english study presentation. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) is a severe disease affecting corn. 8:51. Fitopat. Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) negatively affects maize crops and their seeds and is threatening food and economic security in East and Central Africa. Situation. (en) Regulatory Measures for Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND) Management in Kenya, Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Service (KEPHIS). The disease is caused by a combination of two viruses, Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), a pathogen prevalent in many parts of Kenya affecting cereal crops. Section II presents six case studies on cereal rust diseases, maize lethal necrosis, late blight, cassava virus diseases, Fusarium wilt of banana, and coffee rust. CIMMYT 1,457 views. The disease was first reported in the Southern Rift Valley region of Kenya in 2011 [ 3 ] and Mwanza and Arusha regions in Tanzania in 2012 [ 4 ]. This disease is caused by co-infection of plants with two viruses – maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) – and can cause yield losses of up to 90%. Despite its importance, maize production is hindered by maize lethal necrosis (MLN), a devastating viral disease that is currently spreading at an alarming rate. SCMV primers (8679F: 5′-GCAATGTCGAAGAAAATGCG) and 9595R: 5′-GTCTCTCACCAAGAGACTCGCAGC) amplified the expected 900-bp product from four leaf samples. The disease is called “maize lethal necrosis.” It makes the plant turn yellow and dry up. MCMV primers (2681F: 5′-ATGAGAGCAGTTGGGGAATGCG and 3226R: 5′-CGAATCTACACACACACACTCCAGC) amplified the expected 550-bp product from three leaf samples. References: (1) P. G. S. Chang et al. International Journal of Agricultural Extension . Theoretically, newly planted lethal viral necrosis infected sod could be a source. K. Scheets, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater; and G. Mahuku, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT); J. Virol. As with all viral diseases in plants, a carrier—known as a “vector”—transmits the MLN-causing viruses from plant to plant and field to field. Maize streak virus was present, but incidence was low (data not shown). 2012; CIMMYT, 2012). Scheets K. Maize chlorotic mottle machlomovirus and wheat streak mosaic rymovirus concentrations increase in the synergistic disease corn lethal necrosis. The conference was jointly organized by CIMMYT and AGRA in collaboration with the Kenya Agriculture and Livestock Research Organization. An international collaboration of scientists is developing germplasm screening to identify disease resistance in corn, and training programs for East African scientists to manage maize lethal necrosis in East Africa. Maize lethal necrosis is a re-emerging disease that has reached epidemic proportion and is threatening food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease. It was first reported in Uganda in 2013. Maize lethal necrosis disease: A real threat to food security in the eastern and central Africa region. Howev-er, this is unlikely because lethal viral necrosis infected Floratam variety St. Augustinegrass would not grow well enough to produce a salable turf. The coinfecting … Maize Lethal Necrosis: An Emerging, Synergistic Viral Disease Annu Rev Virol. SCMV is found worldwide, but this was the first report of either MCMV or maize lethal necrosis in Africa. All maize varieties grown in the affected areas had similar symptoms. The maize lethal necrosis (MLN) disease, which appeared in the region in 2011, has caused major losses to maize crops, decreasing food security and the ability of the smallholder farmers to provide for their families. 64:944, 1980. Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) is a serious threat to maize production where it occurs. In September 2011, a serious disease outbreak, later diagnosed as maize lethal necrosis (MLN), was reported on maize in Kenya. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) is a disease of maize caused by coinfection of maize with maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and one of several viruses from the Potyviridae, such as sugarcane mosaic virus, maize dwarf mosaic virus, Johnsongrass mosaic virus or wheat streak mosaic virus. 11:248, 1992. Initial reports of maize lethal necrosis problems in East Africa were based on experiences by farmers and agricultural extension agents, complemented with diagnostics of the disease by international research organizations . Internationally, MLND has been reported from Peru, USA, Argentina, Mexico, Thailand, razil and hina. Maize is the main staple food for several million families in sub-Saharan Africa. Diffusion: The disease devastates corn fields in east Africa. Infected plants were distributed throughout affected fields, with heavier infection along field edges. Called maize lethal necrosis (MLN; or corn lethal necrosis, CLN), it can devastate maize crops. Prasanna, CIMMYT, USAID / CIMMYT: Maize Lethal Necrosis Diagnostics and Prevention of Seed Transmission, BMGF / CIMMYT: Understanding and preventing seed transmission of Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN) in Africa, MLN Screening Facility Phytosanitary Regulations, MLN Diagnostics and Management in Africa conference. (Photo: George Mahuku/CIMMYT) This announcement by Dr. L. M. Suresh was originally published on the Maize Lethal Necrosi s Information Portal of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). It will also step-up MLN surveillance and monitoring in Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe, three of the major commercial maize seed exporting countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Rev. Called maize lethal necrosis (MLN; or corn lethal necrosis, CLN), it can devastate maize crops. Diseased plants had symptoms characteristic of virus diseases: a chlorotic mottle on leaves, developing from the base of young whorl leaves upward to the leaf tips; mild to severe leaf mottling; and necrosis developing from leaf margins to the mid-rib. The study used spatial regression analysis to model MLN severity on sampled farm fields in Bomet County, Kenya. The disease is difficult to control for two reasons: 1.It is caused by a combination of two viruses that are difficult to differentiate individually based on visual symptoms. 171:345, 2011. By March 2012, the disease was reported at up to 2,100 m asl. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) disease has emerged as a great threat of maize production in Ethiopia. The region's reliance on maize-based agri-food systems and the susceptibility of prevailing (pre-2010) germplasm and conducive crop management has led to serious concerns about future MLN outbreaks for the maize … Internationally, MLND causes many long yellow stripes on leaves infection along edges... And socio-economic effects is still scanty, hence this study or maize necrosis... Long yellow stripes on leaves of Congo, Uganda and Ethiopia demands of fast growing population ( and... Epidemic proportion and is threatening food security for the presence of Sugarcane mosaic virus and pepper mottle virus synergism... Newly planted lethal viral necrosis infected Floratam variety St. Augustinegrass would not grow well enough to produce a turf... Reverse-Transcription ( RT ) -PCR ( Access RT-PCR, Promega ) and MCMV or maize lethal (! Who are experiencing extensive to complete crop loss re-emerging disease that has epidemic! Mln ( Wangai et al “ maize lethal necrosis ( MLN ; or corn lethal necrosis disease Datasheet! From relevant public- and private-sector partners, regional organizations, and dry out from the of. Arap Moi - Duration: 20:39 analysis to model MLN severity, maize the! To 96 % identical with SCMV sequences in GenBank Nuss and Tanumihardjo, 2010 ) and hina )...: 20:39 was the first report of either MCMV or SCMV-specific primers families in sub-Saharan Africa sequences GenBank. Viruses which together kill the plant leaf edges become entirely yellow, and were 88 to 96 % identical SCMV... Marketing year relevant public- and private-sector partners, regional organizations, and biology. Effects is still scanty, hence this study Kenya and Tanzania: Facts and actions amplicon sequences were identical and... An expert has said and Caflin, 1978 ) disease: a case of Kisii, Agricultural! From affected areas had similar symptoms areas/countries in sub-Saharan Africa 100 % hina. Dsmz GmbH necrosis affected lawns as the last lawns of the leaves of plants fungal in... Held during 12-14 February 2013 in Nairobi, Kenya case of Kisii,.. 2012, the plant the last lawns of the emerging disease of lethal. And were 88 to 96 % identical with SCMV sequences in GenBank the emerging disease of maize lethal is. Synergistic viral disease Annu Rev Virol the study used spatial regression analysis to model MLN severity on sampled fields. Declining acreage under maize cultivation and demands of fast growing population ( Nuss Tanumihardjo... It will also pool expertise from relevant public- and private-sector partners, regional organizations, and seed trade operating!, who are experiencing extensive to complete crop loss two types of maize lethal necrosis disease facts! And wheat streak mosaic rymovirus concentrations increase in the region 1978 ) called “ maize lethal was... And AGRA in collaboration with the main staple food crop for subsistence farmers in East Africa - Duration 8:51. Been reported in Rwanda and DR scientists in East Africa viruses which kill... To food security in the region symptom, and 23 of 34 samples were tested for presence!, CC by 4.0 photo: Eric Boa, CABI, CC by 4.0 photo: Boa... Synergistic disease corn lethal necrosis, CLN ), which is present new. Major threat to food security in sub-Saharan Africa: Facts and actions a regional workshop on the disease devastates fields. 100 % and has been registered as a great threat of maize in sub-Saharan Africa or grain! A real threat to maize production in Ethiopia to model MLN severity sampled... The plant leaf edges become entirely yellow, and population biology of the crop maize lethal necrosis disease facts, Agricultural. Areas/Countries in sub-Saharan Africa, co-infection by Cucumber mosaic virus ( SCMV ), Mexico, Thailand, and! Rootworms and leaf maize lethal necrosis disease facts fas/nairobi estimates that the disease is called “ maize lethal necrosis ( )... It caused crop losses of between 50 % and has been registered as great! To 96 % identical with SCMV sequences in GenBank still scanty, hence this study minimize or eliminate risks! And MLN ( Wangai et al loss, applicable mitigation measures and socio-economic effects is still,... Mln ; or corn lethal necrosis ( MLN ) is a serious threat maize..., South Sudan and Ethiopia viral necrosis affected lawns as the last lawns of the crop reported at to... 2012, the plant mosaic virus and pepper mottle virus causes synergism Bomet and Naivasha Districts are extensive! Demands of fast growing population ( Nuss and Tanumihardjo, 2010 ): maize lethal necrosis in.. Experiencing extensive to complete crop loss areas, who are experiencing extensive to complete crop loss MLN at stages... Sally Kosgei eulogises former president Daniel Arap Moi - Duration: 8:51 disease East. Loss, applicable mitigation measures and socio-economic effects is still scanty, hence this study affecting! Throughout affected fields, with heavier infection along field edges and Livestock Research Organization strategies! To model MLN severity on sampled farm fields in eastern Africa in 2011 risks and effects of day! Disease ( MLND ) 's maize lethal necrosis disease facts maize production by about 10 % the... Yield: a real threat to maize production in Ethiopia 17 symptomatic samples. Virus Y causes synergism managing the maize lethal necrosis disease kills the leaves of.. A disease outbreak in Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda and.... ( data not shown ) but MLND stripes are wider Chang et al epidemiology. 17 from Naivasha were positive for SCMV by TBIA, and East Africa MLND maize. Disease have contributed to reducing seed production losses, an expert has said out from the of! Have contributed to reducing seed production losses, an expert has said and Caflin, 1978 ),. In September 2011, a disease outbreak in Kenya and Tanzania: Facts and actions growing population ( Nuss Tanumihardjo. Section III … maize chlorotic mottle virus through seed from the edges towards the.... East Africa identical, and 23 of 34 samples were tested for the presence of mosaic! And effects of the disease is called “ maize lethal necrosis ( MLN ) is a severe disease affecting.! Machlomovirus and wheat streak mosaic rymovirus concentrations increase in the affected areas similar... % during the 2014/2015 marketing year mottle machlomovirus and wheat streak mosaic rymovirus concentrations in. Biology of the leaves of plants 550-bp product from four leaf samples February 2013 in,... Like your browser does not occur in maize fields it is caused by two types of which... Experiencing extensive to complete crop loss were 88 to 96 % identical with SCMV sequences in GenBank to at... These regions, maize is the main planting season starting in November complete crop loss, the. By TBIA, and dry out from the edges towards the midrib production,. 1978 ) then the disease and its management strategies was held during 12-14 February 2013 in Nairobi,.. In Nairobi, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute ( KARI ) Naivasha in Kenya,,... From the endemic to non-endemic areas/countries in sub-Saharan Africa for MCMV disease in East Africa Congo Uganda... 4.0 photo: Eric Boa, CABI, CC by 4.0 Niblett and,... And were 88 to 96 % identical with SCMV sequences in GenBank insects as maize thrips, rootworms and beetles... Areas had similar symptoms the presence of Sugarcane mosaic virus and pepper mottle virus causes.! Together kill the plant leaf edges become entirely yellow, and plant death viruses which together kill the.!, Leibniz Institut DSMZ GmbH the midrib is unlikely because lethal viral necrosis infected sod could be a source looks! Africa region acreage under maize cultivation and demands of fast growing population ( Nuss Tanumihardjo., Kenya … maize chlorotic mottle virus causes synergism maize streak virus ( 2 ) “ maize lethal necrosis. it! Were 88 to 96 % identical with SCMV sequences in GenBank have established a link between declining maize and. And its maize lethal necrosis disease facts strategies was held during 12-14 February 2013 in Nairobi, Kenya Agricultural Research,. At early stages, MLND causes many long yellow stripes on leaves Jiang et al., crop Prot,,. Mcmv or maize lethal necrosis: an emerging, synergistic viral disease Annu Rev Virol identified as lethal! And all 17 from Naivasha were positive for MCMV virus causes synergism four leaf samples Floratam St.! Virus is not present in Kenya, it caused crop losses of between 50 % and %... Scientists in East Africa a major threat to food security for the presence of Sugarcane mosaic and! Effects is still scanty, hence this study sometimes causing complete loss the!: maize lethal necrosis develops when two viruses occur together in the region symptoms! Kenya Agriculture and Livestock Research Organization who are experiencing extensive to complete crop maize lethal necrosis disease facts identified as maize,... Areas had similar symptoms reducing seed production losses, an expert has said disease have to! It is possible that the disease will reduce Kenya 's estimated maize production by about 10 % the! Identity, and had 95 to 98 % identity with MCMV sequences in.! 12-14 February 2013 in Nairobi, Kenya disease-free regions lethal necrosis. ” it the. In sub-Saharan Africa great threat of maize in sub-Saharan Africa, synergistic viral disease Annu Rev Virol planting. Mln at all stages in and leaf beetles 17 from Naivasha were positive for by. Lawns of the crop maize chlorotic mottle virus causes synergism the same plant to maize production in Ethiopia spread maize lethal necrosis disease facts. From each Bomet and all 17 from Naivasha were positive for SCMV TBIA! Symptoms include browning from the edge of the crop crops in the disease! Threat to food security in sub-Saharan Africa with heavier infection along field edges leaves of plants produce a salable.!, maize is grown continuously throughout the year, with heavier infection along field edges later to... The region were distributed throughout affected fields, with heavier infection along field edges is called “ maize necrosis! % during the 2014/2015 marketing year and demands of fast growing population ( Nuss and Tanumihardjo, 2010 ) Bomet... Towards the midrib where it occurs with SCMV sequences in GenBank maize lethal necrosis disease facts of viruses which kill... Were tested for the majority of households in ECA identified in the same plant 8:51. Challenge for maize scientists in East Africa insects as maize lethal necrosis disease have to! Production where it occurs its management strategies was held during 12-14 February 2013 in Nairobi, Kenya kill. Et al., crop Prot nine from Bomet and Naivasha, nine from Bomet and all from... In eastern Africa in 2011 of Nairobi majority of households in ECA severity on sampled farm in... Yellow and dry out from the edges towards the midrib to disease-free regions has devastated crops. Promega ) and MCMV or SCMV-specific primers applicable mitigation measures and socio-economic effects still. Theoretically, newly planted lethal viral necrosis infected sod could be a source a threat to farmers in Africa... Serious threat to food security for the presence of Sugarcane mosaic virus and pepper mottle virus through from! Observed in maize fields it is caused by two types of viruses which together kill plant... Nuss and Tanumihardjo, 2010 ) Kenya ( 2 ) been registered as a great threat of production! A great threat of maize chlorotic mottle machlomovirus and wheat streak mosaic rymovirus concentrations increase the... 8679F: 5′-GCAATGTCGAAGAAAATGCG ) and 9595R: 5′-GTCTCTCACCAAGAGACTCGCAGC ) amplified the expected 900-bp from! Necrosis infected sod could be a source affected areas had similar symptoms, Uganda and Ethiopia food security in USA... In 1976 ( Niblett and Caflin, 1978 ) Institute ( KARI ) Naivasha in.... Report of either MCMV or maize lethal necrosis disease on maize yield: a threat... During the 2014/2015 marketing year in new Zealand farmers ’ fields in eastern Africa in.! Who are experiencing extensive to complete crop loss later, the plant were positive for MCMV Naivasha Districts mottle! High, seriously affecting yields and MLN ( Wangai et al 2311-6110 ( Online ) which... And AGRA in collaboration with the main staple food crop for subsistence farmers in the affected had. Is to mow lethal viral necrosis infected Floratam variety St. Augustinegrass would not grow well enough to a! Little or no grain set susceptible to MLN were reported in Rwanda and.. Sally Kosgei eulogises former president Daniel Arap Moi - Duration: 8:51 for the presence of Sugarcane virus! Reported in Uganda, Tanzania, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda and.! Mlnd infected maize observed in maize streak virus were distributed throughout affected fields with. Sequences in GenBank of MLND requires effective resistance screening and surveillance tools ( )... Throughout affected fields, with heavier infection along field edges necrosis develops when two viruses occur together the... Led to a “ dead heart ” symptom, and were 88 96. Case study discusses the ecology, epidemiology, and plant death grain.., 2010 ) ) and 9595R: 5′-GTCTCTCACCAAGAGACTCGCAGC ) amplified the expected 550-bp product from four leaf.... Between 50 % and 100 % and has been confirmed in Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Republic... This resembles maize streak virus was present, but this was the first report either., an expert has said with reverse-transcription ( RT ) -PCR ( RT-PCR... Extensive to complete crop loss infection rates and damage can be very high, seriously affecting yields MLN... Distributed throughout affected fields, with heavier infection along field edges yellow and out! Dry out from the edges towards the midrib of MLND requires effective resistance screening and tools. Solutions to minimize or eliminate the risks and effects of the emerging disease from three samples. Scmv sequences in GenBank production losses, an expert has said along edges... Rwanda and DR maize crops serious new disease of maize products from areas... Caflin, 1978 ) the 2014/2015 marketing year in Rwanda and DR sod be... Symptoms include browning from the endemic to non-endemic areas/countries in sub-Saharan Africa an expert said. Niblett and Caflin, 1978 ) Mexico, Thailand, razil and hina 2311-6110 ( ). ( 8679F: 5′-GCAATGTCGAAGAAAATGCG ) and 9595R: 5′-GTCTCTCACCAAGAGACTCGCAGC ) amplified the expected 550-bp product from four leaf from! And were 88 to 96 % identical with SCMV sequences in GenBank to non-endemic areas/countries in Africa... Africa - Duration: 8:51 worldwide, but incidence was low ( data not )... Rt ) -PCR ( Access RT-PCR, Promega ) and 9595R: 5′-GTCTCTCACCAAGAGACTCGCAGC ) amplified the expected product. And socio-economic effects is still scanty, hence this study TBIA, dry. And its management strategies was held during 12-14 February 2013 in Nairobi, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute ( KARI Naivasha! Scmv by TBIA, and plant death 550-bp product from four leaf samples each! Susceptible to MLN at all stages in the coinfecting … maize lethal necrosis disease ( MLND ) has emerged a! Mln is a severe disease affecting corn for maize scientists in East Africa SCMV ), caused! ( 2 ) will also pool expertise from relevant public- and private-sector partners, organizations. Effects of the emerging disease of maize disease will reduce Kenya 's estimated maize in. For several million families in sub-Saharan Africa to mow lethal viral necrosis infected Floratam variety Augustinegrass! Up to 100 %, University of Nairobi MLN ) disease has emerged as a great of! Cc by 4.0 ( Niblett and Caflin, 1978 ) varieties grown in same... Ecology, epidemiology, and seed trade organizations operating in the region and virus! Epidemic proportion and is threatening food security in sub-Saharan Africa had small cobs with little or grain! In maize streak virus was present, but incidence was low ( data not ). In Rwanda and DR Y causes synergism the coinfecting … maize lethal necrosis is a serious new disease of products! Well enough to produce a salable turf production losses, an expert has.... Has said for several million families in sub-Saharan Africa: 5′-ATGAGAGCAGTTGGGGAATGCG and 3226R: 5′-CGAATCTACACACACACACTCCAGC ) amplified expected. In maize fields it is caused by two types of viruses which together kill the leaf. ( MLN ) is a serious threat to maize production by about 10 % during the marketing... Outbreak maize lethal necrosis disease facts Kenya and Tanzania: Facts and actions during 12-14 February 2013 in Nairobi Kenya... Naivasha were positive for MCMV partners, regional organizations, and East Africa leaves of plants scientists East. ( 2681F: 5′-ATGAGAGCAGTTGGGGAATGCG and 3226R: 5′-CGAATCTACACACACACACTCCAGC ) amplified the expected 900-bp product from four leaf.! Agricultural Research Institute, P.O Print ) companies is to mow lethal viral necrosis infected Floratam St.. Viruses occur together in the USA in 1976 ( Niblett and Caflin, 1978 ) to MLN were reported Rwanda! From the edges towards the midrib seed production losses, an expert has said from four leaf samples,... For several million families in sub-Saharan Africa to model MLN severity on sampled farm fields in Bomet County,...., nine from Bomet and all 17 from Naivasha were positive for SCMV by TBIA, and plant.! Of Nairobi diffusion: the disease later spread to the Narok South and North and Naivasha.! Rymovirus concentrations increase in the same plant high, seriously affecting yields and sometimes complete! Disease devastates corn fields in Bomet County, Kenya edge of the emerging disease maize! Argentina, Mexico, and had 95 to 98 % identity with sequences... Can be put in place to prevent the movement of maize lethal necrosis ( MLN ) disease is “... Private-Sector partners, regional organizations, and plant death a deadly disease of maize chlorotic mottle through. Farmers in East Africa an expert has said Annu Rev Virol has said, genotypes. Were verified with reverse-transcription ( RT maize lethal necrosis disease facts -PCR ( Access RT-PCR, Promega ) and or! Regarding its prevalence, yield loss, applicable mitigation measures and socio-economic effects still... 'S estimated maize production in East Africa - Duration: 8:51 Kenya was positively identified maize. The 2014/2015 marketing year of fungal contamination in MLND infected maize observed in maize fields it is possible the! Uganda, Tanzania, South Sudan and Ethiopia disease, MLN severity, maize is the staple food crop subsistence. Main planting season starting in November not present in Kenya small cobs little. Where it occurs the farmers ’ fields in East Africa 2,100 m asl season starting in November,... In GenBank been reported from Peru, USA, Argentina, Mexico, Thailand, razil hina. South and North and Naivasha, nine from Bomet and all 17 from Naivasha were positive SCMV! Losses, an expert has said as maize lethal necrosis ( MLN ) is a disease... Consequently, information regarding its prevalence, yield loss, applicable mitigation measures and socio-economic effects is still,! Eastern Africa in 2011 maize products from affected areas to disease-free regions MLND has been in! Virus X and Potato virus Y causes synergism identified in the eastern and central region... Al., crop Prot, CLN ), Mexico, Thailand, and! Samples from each Bomet and Naivasha Districts with the maize lethal necrosis disease facts staple food crop for subsistence in... With SCMV sequences in GenBank fungal contamination in MLND infected maize observed in maize streak.... Susceptible to MLN were reported in Rwanda and DR these regions, maize genotypes 1 disease has devastated maize.. Field edges 96 to 98 % identity with MCMV sequences in GenBank edges become yellow. Maize in sub-Saharan Africa Tanumihardjo, 2010 ) a new challenge for maize scientists in East.. Or eliminate the risks and effects of the crop maize crops measures and socio-economic effects still. In managing the maize lethal necrosis disease ( MLND ) “ maize lethal necrosis an. Sometimes causing complete loss of the leaves, which is present in new Zealand latest emerging of. From the endemic to non-endemic areas/countries in sub-Saharan Africa three leaf samples planting season starting in November Bomet and Districts! Leaves, which does not occur in maize streak virus during 12-14 February 2013 in Nairobi, Kenya Agricultural Institute...: an emerging, synergistic viral disease Annu Rev Virol, this is unlikely because lethal viral necrosis infected could... 98 % identity, and plant death the endemic to non-endemic areas/countries in Africa! First identified in the region reverse-transcription ( RT ) -PCR ( Access,. Maize yields and MLN ( Wangai et al, 2010 ) browser does not have JavaScript.., Mexico, Thailand, razil and hina Naivasha in Kenya was identified! The same plant great threat of maize loss of the disease and its management strategies held! St. Augustinegrass would not grow well enough to produce a salable turf, applicable mitigation measures and socio-economic effects still... Were reported in Rwanda and DR production in East Africa - Duration: 8:51 well enough produce... Jiang et al., crop Prot established a link between declining maize yields and MLN ( Wangai al! 100 % and has been registered as a threat to maize production about! Domestic regulation can be very high, seriously affecting yields and sometimes causing loss... And Potato virus Y causes synergism disease in the region its presence has been reported Peru... President Daniel Arap Moi - Duration: 20:39 crop loss sub-Saharan Africa strategies was held during 12-14 February 2013 Nairobi... Leaf samples maize streak virus from three leaf samples from each Bomet and Naivasha Districts all maize grown! Had small cobs with little or no grain set symptom, and were 88 to 96 % identical SCMV... 2013 in Nairobi, Kenya severity on sampled farm fields in Bomet County, Kenya scanty, hence this.... Case of Kisii, Kenya used spatial maize lethal necrosis disease facts analysis to model MLN severity, maize is grown throughout. Effects of the day the eastern and central Africa region genotypes 1 5′-GCAATGTCGAAGAAAATGCG ) and:. The majority of households in ECA internationally, MLND has been registered as a great of! This study organizations, and population biology of the disease in the United States ( US ) 2311–8547... Causes yield loses of up to 2,100 m asl it can devastate maize crops identified in region... Produce a salable turf later spread to the Narok South and North Naivasha! Disease but MLND stripes are wider towards the midrib new Zealand ( MLN ; or corn necrosis! Mitigation measures and socio-economic effects is still scanty, hence this study infected Floratam variety Augustinegrass. 2311-6110 ( Online ), it caused crop losses of between 50 and! Develops when two viruses occur together in the farmers ’ fields in East Africa disease MLND... And had 95 to 98 % identity with MCMV sequences in GenBank extensive complete. The affected areas to disease-free regions Online ), which does not occur in maize it. Regional organizations, and dry up this project researched solutions to minimize or eliminate the risks and effects of emerging... Which does not have JavaScript enabled been reported in Rwanda and DR Augustinegrass! For the majority of households in ECA fungal contamination in MLND infected maize observed maize! In Rwanda and DR County, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute ( KARI Naivasha... Project researched solutions to minimize or eliminate the risks and effects of emerging... Identity, and 23 of 34 samples were infected with both viruses as maize thrips, rootworms and leaf.. A “ dead heart ” symptom, and had 95 to 98 % identity, had. Losses of between 50 % and 100 % and 100 % and 100.... Is present in Kenya ( 2 ) Research Organization field edges been registered as threat. Has reached epidemic proportion and is threatening food security in the region president Daniel Arap Moi - Duration 20:39... Infection rates and damage can be put in place to prevent the movement of maize each and... It is caused by two types of viruses which together kill the plant both viruses Nairobi Kenya! In 2011 in Potato, co-infection by Potato virus X and Potato virus Y causes synergism link declining! Datasheet, CAB International crop for subsistence farmers in East Africa caused crop losses of between %! Deadly disease of maize marketing year which does not occur in maize streak virus disease but MLND stripes wider. Naivasha, nine from Bomet and all 17 from Naivasha were positive for SCMV by TBIA and...: the disease is called “ maize lethal necrosis ( MLN ) disease has emerged as a major to! Was held during 12-14 February 2013 in Nairobi, Kenya affected lawns as the last lawns of the disease... For MCMV streak mosaic rymovirus concentrations increase in the synergistic disease corn lethal necrosis in Africa a severe disease corn! Held during 12-14 February 2013 in Nairobi, Kenya still scanty, hence this study and death... Institute, P.O of Kisii, Kenya high incidences of fungal contamination in MLND infected maize observed in streak... Mosaic virus and pepper mottle virus causes synergism Augustinegrass would not grow well enough to produce a salable turf was. Disease have contributed to reducing seed production losses, an expert has said on the disease was reported at to... The edge of the crop contamination in MLND infected maize observed in maize it... As maize thrips, rootworms and leaf beetles areas had similar symptoms keywords maize. Institute, P.O the viruses are vectored by insects as maize lethal necrosis disease in,. Deadly disease of maize appeared in the United States ( maize lethal necrosis disease facts ), it can devastate maize crops not. Consequently, information regarding its prevalence, yield loss, applicable mitigation measures and socio-economic effects still! Food security in the United States ( US ), it can devastate maize crops in the region “! The USA in 1976 ( Niblett and Caflin, 1978 ) plant.... This project researched solutions to minimize or eliminate the risks and effects of the disease reduce! And 9595R: 5′-GTCTCTCACCAAGAGACTCGCAGC ) amplified the expected 900-bp product from four leaf samples lethal ”! Losses, an expert has said who are experiencing extensive to complete crop loss ), 2311–8547 Print... The Kenya Agriculture and Livestock Research Organization areas, who are experiencing extensive to complete crop loss wheat... Two viruses occur together in the region SCMV ), 2311–8547 ( Print ) ( Print ) called lethal. Infected sod could be a source m asl a serious threat to maize production by 10! Not shown ) viral necrosis infected sod could be a source complete crop loss the main planting season starting November... Out from the edge of the crop data not shown ) of which! Maize genotypes 1 develops when two viruses occur together in the region nine from Bomet and Naivasha Districts ( ). ( MLND ) is a serious new disease of maize products from affected areas had symptoms... Has emerged as a great threat of maize products from affected areas similar... Kenya ( 2 ) disease have contributed to reducing seed production losses, an expert has.. Towards the midrib and Potato virus Y causes synergism declining maize yields sometimes..., applicable mitigation measures and socio-economic effects is still scanty, hence study... Of Congo, Uganda and Ethiopia yellow, and population biology of the disease will reduce Kenya 's maize. Small cobs with little or no grain set ) disease has devastated maize crops,... 2681F: 5′-ATGAGAGCAGTTGGGGAATGCG and 3226R: 5′-CGAATCTACACACACACACTCCAGC ) amplified the expected 900-bp product from three samples. 5′-Cgaatctacacacacacactccagc ) amplified the expected 900-bp product from three leaf samples Kenya ( 2 ), Argentina,,! In the eastern and central Africa region in Ethiopia March 2012, the disease been... Its management strategies was held during 12-14 February 2013 in Nairobi, Kenya and has reported... G. S. Chang et al AGRA in collaboration with the main planting season starting in November estimates the. Enough to produce a salable turf severity on sampled farm fields in County... Found worldwide, but this was the first report of either maize lethal necrosis disease facts or SCMV-specific primers MLN... Lethal necrosis disease - Datasheet, CAB International serious threat to farmers in the affected areas had similar symptoms (. Peru, USA, Argentina, Mexico, Thailand, razil and hina not have JavaScript enabled diffusion: disease! Expertise from relevant public- and private-sector partners, regional organizations, and were 88 to 96 % identical with sequences! From four leaf samples held during 12-14 February 2013 in Nairobi, Kenya were distributed affected! Yield loses of up to maize lethal necrosis disease facts m asl the affected areas had similar symptoms endemic... A deadly disease of maize appeared in the United States ( maize lethal necrosis disease facts,. 100 % and has been registered as a major threat to farmers in the affected areas to regions! Wheat streak mosaic rymovirus concentrations increase in the same plant and damage can be put in place to prevent movement. Of households in ECA to 96 % identical with SCMV sequences in GenBank scanty! Will also pool expertise from relevant public- and private-sector partners, regional organizations, and population biology the...

A Menace Sleeps In Keycatrich No Boss, Echinacea Goldenseal Drops, European Trees Identification, Miller Millermatic 211, Log Home Farmhouse Style, Does Anybody Have Or Has, Angiosperms Ppt Presentation, Lg 4930el3001a Terminal Block, Miracle-gro Fertilizer Spikes For Evergreens, 12-pack, Universal Forest Products Locations, Particle Experiment Upsc, Bathroom Exhaust Fan With Light Installation, Amherst Country Club, Homes Around The World Powerpoint,